Coronavirus wikipedia。 COVID

Coronavirus disease 2019

It is indicated for use in adults and adolescents aged twelve years and older with body weight at least 40 kilograms 88 lb for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Cavanagh D, Mawditt K, Sharma M, Drury SE, Ainsworth HL, Britton P, Gough RE August 2001. Lihat juga [ ]• Entre 2002 e 2003, mais de oito mil 8. Diakses tanggal 31 Januari 2020. Ils peuvent muter et se recombiner. Kendall, Malcolm Bynoe, and working at the of the collected a unique virus designated B814 in 1961. Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit dalam bahasa Inggris. "Do men have a higher case fatality rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome than women do? Woo, PCY; Lau SKP; Huang Y; Yuen KY 2009. Kit uji laboratorium CDC untuk COVID-19 WHO telah menerbitkan beberapa protokol pengujian untuk penyakit ini. Transmission and prevention research research has been conducted with several objectives, including predictions of the dynamics of transmission, diagnosis and prognosis of infection, estimation of the impact of interventions, or allocation of resources. The only exceptions are casualties, which are not included as recovered. The virus is of concern to the because of the high mortality from infection, its rapid spread, and its effect on production. ; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. against human coronaviruses have also been identified such as viral proteases, polymerases, and entry proteins. Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S. Zhou, Fei; Yu, Ting; Du, Ronghui; Fan, Guohui; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhibo; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Yeming; Song, Bin; Gu, Xiaoying; Guan, Lulu; Wei, Yuan; Li, Hui; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Jiuyang; Tu, Shengjin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hua; Cao, Bin 2020. Pedoman ini melibatkan mengidentifikasi pasien yang memiliki setidaknya dua gejala berikut selain riwayat perjalanan ke Wuhan atau kontak dengan pasien lain yang terinfeksi: demam, gambaran pencitraan pneumonia, jumlah sel darah putih normal atau berkurang, atau berkurangnya jumlah limfosit. from the original on 2016-05-16. Schoeman, Dewald; Fielding, Burtram C. The virus can spread to different organs throughout the chicken. Kelompok virus ini yang dapat menyebabkan pada dan termasuk. Dark-skinned people are at particular risk of a which can impair the immune system. Parry, Jane 20 Januari 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19 Main article: In December 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in ,. Beberapa koronavirus khususnya anggota garis keturunan A juga memiliki tonjolan protein pendek yang disebut HE. Tiga proyek vaksin ini sedang didukung oleh CEPI , termasuk satu proyek perusahaan bioteknologi dan proyek lainnya oleh. Pro-MED-mail dalam bahasa Inggris. Microbes and Infection dalam bahasa Inggris. The NTDs recognise and bind sugars on the surface of the host cell. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. Pengobatan [ ] Per April 2020, WHO menyatakan tidak ada pengobatan khusus untuk COVID-19. diperkirakan antara 1—14 hari oleh Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia WHO dan 2—14 hari oleh Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit Amerika Serikat CDC. MERS-CoV, although related to several bat coronavirus species, appears to have diverged from these several centuries ago. Recombination — The replicase-transcriptase complex is also capable of when at least two viral genomes are present in the same infected cell. Infection in animals Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in since the 1930s. As the alveolar disease progresses, respiratory failure might develop and death may follow. le pour le• "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia standard version ". le , du SRAS en• They are enclosed in an envelope embedded with a number of protein molecules. The WHO also recommends that individuals wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty, before eating and after blowing one's nose. The S1 subunit forms the head of the spike and has the receptor binding domain RBD. , www. A possible path of evolution of SARS coronavirus and keen bat coronaviruses is that SARS-related coronaviruses coevolved in bats for a long time. This process is followed by the transcription of these negative-sense subgenomic RNA molecules to their corresponding positive-sense. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR February 2020. Pertama, penyakit mungkin berbentuk ringan yang menyerupai penyakit pernapasan atas umum lainnya. Many academics have attempted to calculate these numbers for specific populations. Further information: International research on vaccines and medicines in COVID-19 is underway by government organisations, academic groups, and industry researchers. by 10 December 2020 Country Confirmed cases Deaths Deaths per 100,000 population 597,643 17,603 2. la pour le• Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV in vitro. A large study in China compared chest CT results to PCR and demonstrated that though imaging is less specific for the infection, it is faster and more. Consultado em 18 de Abril de 2020• Virions acquired an envelope by budding into the cisternae and formed mostly spherical, sometimes pleomorphic, particles that averaged 78 nm in diameter Figure 1A. Zeng, Qinghong; Langereis, Martijn A. n 1 May 2020, the United States FDA gave the drug an EUA for people hospitalized with severe COVID-19. On 24 December, sent a BAL sample from an unresolved clinical case to sequencing company Vision Medicals. Diakses tanggal 12 Februari 2020. Diakses tanggal 20 Februari 2020. Dorothy Hamre and John Procknow at the isolated a novel cold from medical students in 1962. Tidak ada keluhan secara klinis, hasil tomografi terkomputasi sama seperti hasil pemeriksaan yang terakhir, tidak ada kontak dengan orang lain yang memiliki gejala gangguan saluran pernapasan, dan tidak ada anggota keluarga dari keempat penderita yang terinfeksi. Bat coronavirus CDPHE15• Infectious bronchitis virus is one of a number of strains of the species. Artikel ini memberikan informasi dasar tentang topik kesehatan. Viral membrane proteins: structure, function, and drug design. The of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 , one of the largest among RNA viruses. The source attributes it to disproportionately high rates of many health conditions that may put them at higher risk as well as living conditions like lack of access to clean water. Around one in five people are infected with the virus but do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. It was not realized at the time that these three different viruses were related. A majority of those who were admitted to hospital with severe disease report long-term problems including fatigue and shortness of breath. Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19 is a contagious caused by SARS-CoV-2. As of 10 December 2020, there have been at least 1,580,006 confirmed deaths and more than 69,483,855 confirmed cases in the. Coronavirus HKU23• Callaway, Ewen; Cyranoski, David 23 de janeiro de 2020. While most people have mild symptoms, some people develop ARDS. Bats and birds, as flying vertebrates, are an ideal for the coronavirus gene pool with for alphacoronaviruses and betacoronavirus — and birds the reservoir for gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses. As of December 2020 , hundreds of have been undertaken, with research happening on every continent except. l' pour HCoV-229E• Pengujian menggunakan transkripsi-balik secara waktu nyata rRT-PCR. " Chinese scientists were able to isolate a strain of the coronavirus and publish the so laboratories across the world could independently develop PCR tests to detect infection by the virus. Lau SK, Woo PC, Li KS, Tsang AK, Fan RY, Luk HK, et al. McIntosh K, Dees JH, Becker WB, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM April 1967. CDC merekomendasikan untuk menutup mulut dan hidung dengan tisu saat batuk atau bersin dan menggunakan bagian dalam siku jika tidak tersedia tisu. oleh• Diarsipkan dari tanggal 14 Februari 2020. In June, initial results from a in the United Kingdom showed that reduced mortality by one third for patients who are critically ill on ventilators and one fifth for those receiving supplemental oxygen. Nevertheless, the interaction between S protein and receptor remains the principal, if not sole, determinant of coronavirus host species range and tissue tropism. Sturman LS, Holmes KV 1983-01-01. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dalam bahasa Inggris. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the which is also caused by other , predominantly , while more lethal varieties can cause , , and. Virus ini menyebar melalui percikan droplets dari saluran pernapasan yang dikeluarkan saat sedang batuk atau bersin. The of announced in March a study on "a human antibody that may prevent the activity" of IL-6. Sparrow, Annie. Their size is highly variable and generally is an average diameter of 120. Cui J, Han N, Streicker D, Li G, Tang X, Shi Z, et al. Later reviews in June 2020 indicated that there is no significant difference in susceptibility or in CFR between genders. Different SARS-CoV strains isolated from several hosts vary in their binding affinities for human ACE2 and consequently in their infectivity of human cells 76, 78 Fig. Neuman BW, Adair BD, Yoshioka C, Quispe JD, Orca G, Kuhn P, et al. from the original on 2012-11-24. Excluding collectivities of , , and. Cause COVID-19 is caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus strain. [T]hese viruses displayed a characteristic fringe of large, distinctive, petal-shaped peplomers or spikes which resembled a crown, like the corona spinarum in religious art; hence the name coronaviruses. A review found that early quarantine with other public health measures are effective in limiting the pandemic, but the best manner of adopting and relaxing policies are uncertain, as local conditions vary. Setiap kasus yang dicegah mengakibatkan pencegahan lebih jauh, yang pada gilirannya dapat menghentikan wabah di jalur tersebut. CIDRAP dalam bahasa Inggris. Guan, Wei-jie; Ni, Zheng-yi; Hu, Yu; Liang, Wen-hua; Ou, Chun-quan; He, Jian-xing; Liu, Lei; Shan, Hong; Lei, Chun-liang 2020-04-30. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus SARS-CoV. The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized. Coronaviruses can cause colds with major symptoms, such as , and a from swollen. Penularan Penularan koronavirus dari manusia ke manusia diperkirakan terjadi melalui kontak langsung dalam jarak dekat via tetesan kecil atau droplet dari saluran pernapasan yang dihasilkan penderita saat bersin dan batuk. Diakses tanggal 26 Februari 2020. Sous-genre• Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Following the infection, children may develop , which has symptoms similar to , which can be fatal. Kahn JS, McIntosh K November 2005. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. Selandia Baru• Transmission electron micrograph of organ cultured coronavirus OC43 virologist at in London, collaborating with Tyrrell, compared the structures of IBV, B814 and 229E in 1967. People remain infectious for up to ten days in moderate cases, and two weeks in severe cases. Seasonal distribution of HCoV-NL63 in Germany shows a preferential detection from November to March Four human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are generally mild:• The WHO update on 28 September 2012 said the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person. Remarques :• des pour HCoV-OC43• Diarsipkan dari tanggal 4 Maret 2020. Diarsipkan dari tanggal 31 Januari 2020. On 27 and 28 December, Vision Medicals informed the Wuhan Central Hospital and the Chinese CDC of the results of the test, showing a new coronavirus. During the early stages of the outbreak, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days. ; DeBolt, Chas; Lindquist, Scott; Lofy, Kathy H. ; Makino, Shinji; Sawicki, Stanley G. Experimental Biology and Medicine Maywood, N. The first case was identified in , China, in December 2019. Based on those preliminary results, dexamethasone treatment has been recommended by the for patients with COVID-19 who are mechanically ventilated or who require supplemental oxygen but not in patients with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen. CDC, there was no evidence they transmitted the virus to humans. The 1a and 1b, which occupy the first two-thirds of the genome, encode the replicase polyprotein pp1ab. Penamaan [ ] Pada 11 Februari 2020, mengumumkan bahwa "COVID-19" menjadi nama resmi dari penyakit ini. HCoV-OC43 ,• "Coronaviruses, a New Group of Animal RNA Viruses". Species: , Origin Origins of human coronaviruses with possible intermediate hosts The MRCA of all coronaviruses is estimated to have existed as recently as 8000 , although some models place the common ancestor as far back as 55 million years or more, implying long term coevolution with bat and avian species. Illustration of virion Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. This article's does not adequately key points of its contents. "Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses". The US guidelines do not recommend any medication for prevention of COVID-19, before or after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, outside the setting of a clinical trial. Systemic inflammation results in , allowing inflammatory lymphocytic and monocytic infiltration of the lung and the heart. Although work is underway to that inhibit the virus, the primary is currently symptomatic. Later in the 1890s, human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus after another cross-species spillover event. Sakit tenggorokan, pilek, atau bersin-bersin lebih jarang ditemukan. HCoV-229E• Using the three viruses were shown to be morphologically related by their general shape and distinctive club-like. Evidence stemming from of several smaller research papers also suggests that smoking can be associated with worse patient outcomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Bushnell LD, Brandly CA 1933. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. "COVID-19: what is next for public health? PDF from the original on 2020-01-20. Phylogentically, mouse hepatitis virus , which infects the mouse's liver and , is related to human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus. Wertheim, Joel O. Badan yang mengembangkan vaksin terdiri dari Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit Tiongkok, , dan. The number of deaths vs total cases by country and approximate case fatality rate The severity of COVID-19 varies. Consultado em 19 de abril de 2020• TGEV infects, via a fecal-oral route, the pig epithelial cells of the digestive tract by binding to the. Other forms of passive antibody therapy, for example, using manufactured monoclonal antibodies, are in development. 4 to 12 kDa in size and are composed of 76 to 109 amino acids. Diarsipkan dari xlsx tanggal 14 May 2019. The larger polyprotein pp1ab is a result of a caused by a UUUAAAC and a downstream at the end of open reading frame ORF1a. Vetter, Pauline; Eckerle, Isabella; Kaiser, Laurent 2020-02-19. Filipina• Pemeliharaan CS1: Format PMC• Guan, Wei-jie; Ni, Zheng-yi; Hu, Yu; Liang, Wen-hua; Ou, Chun-quan; He, Jian-xing; Liu, Lei; Shan, Hong; Lei, Chun-liang 2020-04-30. They possess two major domains named N-terminal domain S1-NTD and C-terminal domain S1-CTD , both of which serve as the receptor-binding domains. IBV , a type of coronavirus, causes. Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Fielding, Burtram C 25 May 2010. Pada kasus-kasus awal yang mengakibatkan kematian, median waktu dari penyakit tersebut adalah 14 hari dengan rentang total dari 6 hingga 41 hari. During human-to-human transmission, an average 1000 infectious SARS-CoV-2 virions are thought to initiate a new infection. Hal tersebut untuk menghindari puncak epidemi yang dapat membuat tenaga medis kewalahan. ; Maeurer, Markus 5 Februari 2020. In September 2020, the EMA endorsed the use of dexamethasone in adults and adolescents from twelve years of age and weighing at least 40 kilograms 88 lb who require supplemental oxygen therapy. SARS-CoV genome and proteins Coronaviruses contain a genome. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. ; Tong, Suxiang 1 March 2017. Diagram of the genome and functional domains of the S protein for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV The spikes are the most distinguishing feature of coronaviruses, and are responsible for the corona- or halo-like surface. They are also the most variable components as they are responsible for host cell specificity. This is done by slowing the infection rate to decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed, allowing for better treatment of current cases, and delaying additional cases until effective treatments or a vaccine become available. Sejak saat itu, anggota koronavirus yang lain mulai diidentifikasi, termasuk pada 2003, pada 2004, pada 2005, sebelumnya dikenal sebagai 2012-nCoV pada 2012, dan sebelumnya dikenal sebagai 2019-nCoV pada 2019; sebagian besar dari virus-virus ini terkait dengan infeksi saluran pernapasan yang serius. Main article: also known as physical distancing includes actions intended to slow the spread of the disease by minimising close contact between individuals. HCoV-229E• 924 kasus terkonfirmasi di Tiongkok mengindikasikan tanda dan gejala klinis berikut: Jalur penyakit dan komplikasi [ ] Ada tiga jalur utama yang mungkin ditempuh penyakit ini. In the case of outbreaks of highly contagious animal coronaviruses, such as PEDV, measures such as of pigs may be used to prevent transmission to other herds. Common cold HCoV-HKU1 2004 Originated from. Zhang, Haibo; Penninger, Josef M. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the original. In early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other , helped by the and Wuhan being a transport hub and major rail interchange. Wales• Prophylactic tocilizumab has been shown to increase serum IL-6 levels by saturating the IL-6R, driving IL-6 across the , and exacerbating neurotoxicity while having no effect on the incidence of CRS. The virus is transmitted by aerosol and food contaminated by feces. is able to particularly occur indoors, in high risk locations, such as in restaurants, choirs, gyms, nightclubs, offices, and religious venues, often when they are crowded or less ventilated. Many human coronaviruses have their origin in bats. from the original on 2020-01-14. Extreme sizes are known from 50 to 200 nm in diameter. Diduga, bahwa penurunan aktivitas ACE2 memberikan perlindungan terhadap sel inang karena ekspresi ACE2 yang berlebihan akan menyebabkan infeksi dan replikasi SARS-CoV-2. The exact route of transmission is rarely proven conclusively, but infection mainly happens when people are near each other for long enough. The life cycle of a coronavirus Infection begins when the viral spike protein attaches to its complementary host cell receptor. A scan of a person with COVID-19 shows lesions bright regions in the lungs. Lauffer MA, Maramorosch K eds. For example, one person may have a high fever, a cough, and fatigue, and another person may have a low fever at the start of the disease and develop difficulty breathing a week later. , sur covid. Strategi diperlukan untuk mengurangi kontak antara orang yang terinfeksi dengan kerumunan besar seperti dengan menutup sekolah dan kantor, membatasi perjalanan, dan membatalkan pertemuan massa dalam jumlah besar. Stanway, David 1 de fevereiro de 2020. Both have since docked in Florida. The specimen came to be known as the Beaudette strain. The subunit complex is split to individual subunits when the virus binds and fuses with the host cell under the action of such as family and TMPRSS2 of the host cell. Different against IBV exist and have helped to limit the spread of the virus and its variants. The mRNAs are gene transcripts of the last third of the virus genome after the initial overlapping reading frame. Including cases on the escort frigate. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the heart and are involved in heart function. Spanyol• Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. Health agencies have issued detailed instructions for proper self-isolation. , Gouvernement. 3 February 2020. Prolonged prothrombin time and elevated C-reactive protein levels on admission to the hospital are associated with severe course of COVID-19 and with a transfer to ICU. More recently, coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged sometime before 1960. Personal hygiene and a healthy lifestyle and have been recommended to improve immunity. Pemeriksaan RT-PCR diulangi lagi setelah 5 hingga 13 hari kemudian dan menunjukkan hasil positif pemeriksaan menggunakan kit uji dari pabrik yang berbeda juga menunjukkan hasil yang sama. Caringly Yours dalam bahasa Inggris. The C-terminal domain forms a matrix-like lattice that adds to the extra-thickness of the envelope. In particular, pathogenic GM-CSF-secreting were shown to correlate with the recruitment of inflammatory IL-6-secreting and severe lung pathology in COVID-19 patients. In a single clinical trial, this combination therapy was shown to have a small, but statistically significant effect on patient outcomes compared to administration of remdesivir alone. Geller C, Varbanov M, Duval RE November 2012. Cumulative COVID-19 deaths on Jan 11, and first day of following months Date Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov World 1 259 2,977 40,598 224,172 371,166 508,055 675,060 848,445 1,010,639 1,192,911 Days to double 6 4 16 8 18 37 56 70 80 94 101 Countries and territories 1 1 8 125 175 185 186 192 191 193 193 0 0 0 2,850 55,337 102,640 126,573 151,265 182,162 204,642 228,185 0 0 0 159 5,466 28,834 58,314 91,263 120,828 142,921 159,477 0 0 0 38 1,147 5,394 17,400 36,511 65,288 98,678 122,111 0 0 0 28 1,732 9,779 27,121 46,000 64,158 77,163 91,289 0 0 0 1,789 26,771 38,489 43,730 46,119 41,501 42,143 46,555 0 0 29 12,430 27,967 33,415 34,767 35,141 35,483 35,894 38,618 0 0 2 3,514 24,342 28,746 29,760 30,147 30,494 31,746 36,473 0 0 0 8,189 24,543 29,045 28,355 28,445 29,141 31,791 35,878 0 0 43 2,898 6,028 7,797 10,817 16,766 21,571 26,169 34,864 0 0 0 24 943 4,371 9,504 19,021 28,788 32,396 34,411 0 0 0 14 278 890 3,223 9,810 19,364 25,828 31,135 0 0 0 24 215 530 1,283 3,466 8,498 16,519 30,792 0 0 0 17 1,169 4,855 9,536 14,058 17,299 20,891 28,235 0 0 0 5 103 683 2,657 8,005 14,149 16,734 19,276 0 0 0 12 227 1,054 5,688 9,457 11,289 12,741 14,207 0 0 0 136 792 1,613 2,876 5,131 7,417 10,740 13,869 0 0 0 75 900 3,358 4,527 5,702 6,556 11,355 12,670 0 0 0 705 7,594 9,467 9,754 9,841 9,897 10,020 11,734 0 0 0 50 93 205 1,943 4,741 7,042 9,181 10,910 0 0 0 732 6,288 8,511 8,985 9,148 9,302 9,500 10,481 0 0 0 214 3,174 4,540 5,131 5,691 6,370 8,195 10,252 0 0 0 89 3,082 7,092 8,566 8,929 9,117 9,291 10,110 0 0 0 6 59 310 1,071 2,894 4,966 7,931 8,715 0 0 0 1,039 4,795 5,956 6,113 6,147 6,215 6,397 7,385 0 0 0 17 272 718 1,173 1,709 2,605 4,193 7,306 0 0 1 88 568 957 1,266 2,023 3,558 5,504 7,221 0 0 0 69 717 1,262 1,651 2,343 3,621 4,825 6,968 0 0 0 26 385 1,543 4,395 5,951 6,298 6,479 6,806 0 0 0 46 392 959 2,953 4,805 5,421 5,914 6,266 0 0 0 180 2,586 4,395 5,333 5,743 5,820 5,893 5,938 0 0 0 6 168 650 1,847 3,111 4,281 5,251 5,923 0 0 0 33 644 1,064 1,463 1,716 2,039 2,513 5,631 0 0 0 10 162 503 1,649 2,866 3,897 4,768 5,402 1 259 2,873 3,321 4,643 4,645 4,648 4,668 4,730 4,746 4,746 0 0 0 1 16 102 746 1,924 2,760 3,246 3,729 0 0 0 36 170 205 228 353 1,141 2,152 3,695 0 0 0 31 236 320 349 382 424 655 3,251 0 0 0 24 178 330 620 1,397 1,995 2,364 2,688 0 0 0 2 71 201 485 1,312 1,858 2,323 2,669 0 0 0 21 223 285 319 493 961 1,543 2,517 0 0 0 160 989 1,410 1,576 1,735 1,822 1,971 2,507 0 0 0 2 25 41 188 793 1,878 2,075 2,251 0 0 0 51 301 502 747 1,160 1,710 2,105 2,245 0 0 0 373 1,422 1,656 1,683 1,703 1,725 1,782 2,035 0 0 0 35 450 653 912 1,210 1,510 1,736 1,956 0 0 0 71 1,232 1,652 1,736 1,763 1,777 1,804 1,913 0 0 0 16 323 526 585 596 615 781 1,819 0 0 0 3 119 295 547 778 995 1,320 1,785 0 0 5 57 432 892 974 1,011 1,296 1,571 1,766 0 0 0 4 64 265 774 1,283 1,406 1,458 1,536 0 0 0 0 3 11 103 274 809 1,198 1,469 0 0 0 3 9 11 17 47 308 841 1,387 0 0 0 2 6 10 15 140 418 880 1,371 0 0 0 3 33 139 453 749 881 963 1,363 0 0 0 10 41 48 50 50 77 246 1,317 0 0 0 8 66 140 230 383 629 825 1,279 0 0 0 1 6 6 6 6 6 310 1,237 0 0 0 12 68 152 185 324 603 849 1,234 0 0 0 1 11 49 176 421 685 935 1,208 0 0 0 0 8 16 62 1,397 1,060 1,065 1,150 0 0 0 1 58 287 590 879 1,013 1,112 1,144 0 0 0 128 584 668 705 718 733 799 1,097 0 0 0 1 17 64 148 341 577 711 996 0 0 0 9 77 133 302 486 603 739 994 0 0 0 0 89 235 392 559 681 833 985 0 0 0 0 9 46 174 448 717 843 975 0 0 0 0 0 8 29 56 228 498 937 0 0 0 20 92 103 104 196 652 886 907 0 0 0 0 3 5 24 74 237 551 857 0 0 0 2 31 286 572 746 823 836 837 0 0 0 5 8 9 9 11 15 61 829 0 0 0 8 54 136 153 219 434 661 822 0 0 0 13 179 243 277 573 713 749 820 0 0 0 3 10 14 48 158 381 621 793 0 0 0 0 26 212 354 447 531 610 779 0 0 0 5 24 63 213 448 534 591 730 0 0 0 90 452 574 605 615 624 650 721 0 0 0 1 22 30 41 217 515 615 671 0 0 0 12 24 27 34 59 167 361 637 0 0 0 49 140 175 192 206 266 391 626 0 0 0 0 2 81 313 494 567 588 600 0 0 0 2 9 15 26 143 322 471 568 0 0 0 1 2 5 11 85 173 368 555 0 0 0 6 69 103 107 145 186 280 546 0 0 0 13 31 33 65 157 284 387 509 0 0 0 6 105 264 315 351 384 416 495 0 0 18 165 248 271 282 301 324 415 466 0 0 0 6 61 191 313 391 414 418 426 0 0 0 17 211 320 328 329 335 344 358 0 0 0 0 3 7 24 151 288 332 349 0 0 0 0 6 12 15 17 19 40 335 0 0 0 0 9 42 112 205 284 311 324 0 0 0 4 8 19 87 148 190 246 321 0 0 0 5 17 36 112 182 276 301 320 0 0 0 2 7 9 12 49 100 170 313 0 0 0 8 31 71 169 214 258 272 307 0 0 0 2 3 5 9 43 112 197 288 0 0 0 2 2 4 13 51 108 183 284 0 0 0 28 204 236 250 255 264 274 282 0 0 0 43 102 115 121 125 127 136 249 0 0 0 0 0 6 20 106 192 230 244 0 0 0 1 4 4 7 67 202 228 243 0 0 0 2 10 38 113 174 197 214 232 0 0 0 0 7 41 105 161 201 229 232 0 0 0 13 91 108 111 117 128 138 231 0 0 0 0 23 28 28 29 33 48 219 0 0 0 1 7 9 10 10 21 107 206 0 0 0 0 3 4 16 114 175 179 184 0 0 0 7 45 70 78 80 86 92 165 0 0 0 0 1 23 128 157 159 161 163 0 0 0 23 90 110 110 114 124 124 157 0 0 0 1 4 35 74 116 137 151 156 0 0 0 0 11 11 11 14 43 95 142 0 0 0 5 12 14 14 14 16 57 139 0 0 0 0 26 77 116 124 126 131 136 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 75 121 133 0 0 0 6 61 83 86 87 94 122 128 0 0 0 2 8 12 12 20 37 78 124 0 0 0 0 14 33 66 102 115 120 124 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 9 96 112 119 0 0 0 0 1 2 11 40 91 109 117 0 0 0 0 1 1 13 26 67 104 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 32 75 111 0 0 0 3 8 8 8 8 22 75 107 0 0 0 0 28 78 90 93 98 99 104 0 0 0 0 3 65 74 75 77 85 98 0 0 0 1 1 4 15 23 40 60 95 0 0 0 0 9 20 41 56 78 89 92 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 11 23 61 92 0 0 0 0 2 12 12 83 83 83 83 0 0 0 0 16 27 36 75 82 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 47 52 60 68 76 82 0 0 0 2 5 5 5 5 10 49 79 0 0 0 12 42 51 52 66 53 53 75 0 0 0 0 7 46 60 67 70 72 74 0 0 0 4 52 68 69 69 64 64 73 0 0 0 0 7 23 33 46 59 66 72 0 0 0 0 15 24 30 32 34 37 71 0 0 0 0 1 1 15 43 59 66 70 0 0 0 3 32 64 67 69 69 69 69 0 0 0 14 43 53 53 53 55 57 67 0 0 0 0 4 7 9 9 12 34 62 0 0 0 0 0 2 47 59 62 62 62 0 0 0 0 2 24 54 58 60 61 61 0 0 0 12 54 57 58 58 58 59 59 0 0 0 0 0 10 38 46 47 49 59 0 0 0 1 15 22 27 35 44 48 58 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 13 26 58 0 0 0 1 3 17 42 49 53 54 55 0 0 0 1 9 13 14 18 27 48 55 0 0 0 0 4 23 35 39 40 42 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 31 36 43 0 0 0 26 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 0 0 0 0 2 3 21 36 40 41 41 0 0 0 0 1 8 24 27 33 39 41 0 0 0 0 0 5 8 16 28 34 38 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 3 10 26 37 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 16 29 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 34 35 35 0 0 0 2 20 29 31 31 32 32 32 0 0 0 2 14 14 14 15 16 21 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 29 0 0 0 3 15 23 26 27 27 27 28 0 0 0 8 20 17 19 19 21 22 26 0 0 0 1 19 22 22 22 22 25 25 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 6 16 24 0 0 0 0 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 0 0 0 0 13 15 15 15 17 22 22 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 5 16 22 0 0 0 1 17 21 21 21 21 21 21 0 0 0 0 4 6 6 8 14 20 21 0 0 0 2 7 10 11 11 12 13 20 0 0 0 0 1 10 11 15 15 15 16 Other 0 0 6 7 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 0 0 0 1 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 0 0 0 2 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 0 0 0 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0 0 0 2 3 3 3 3 5 8 9 0 0 0 0 6 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 7 7 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 7 7 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 6 6 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. from the original on 17 June 2020. oleh• Yunani• " The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a ; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used. Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit dalam bahasa Inggris. Direktur Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia, , mengatakan bahwa "CO" adalah singkatan dari " corona" korona , "VI" untuk " virus", "D" untuk " disease" penyakit , dan "19" untuk tahun pertama kali diidentifikasi 2019. Penyebab [ ] Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh koronavirus sindrom pernapasan akut berat 2 atau severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Xu, Hao; Zhong, Liang; Deng, Jiaxin; Peng, Jiakuan; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Li, Taiwen; Chen, Qianming 2020-02-24. Depending on the host cell protease available, cleavage and activation allows the the host cell by or direct fusion of the viral envelope with the. The host ribosomes translate the initial overlapping ORF1a and ORF1b of the virus genome into two large overlapping polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab. from the original on 2019-07-01. The virus could not be cultivated using standard techniques which had successfully cultivated , and other known common cold viruses. merekomendasikan bahwa perlu dipertimbangkan sebagai pilihan pengobatan bagi mereka yang mengalami ARDS yang terkait dengan COVID-19. en , sur mohfw. "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease-2019 COVID-19 : The epidemic and the challenges". at two farms in the Netherlands also tested positive for COVID-19. Methods include quarantines; travel restrictions; and the closing of schools, workplaces, stadiums, theatres, or shopping centres. Monto AS, DeJonge P, Callear AP, Bazzi LA, Capriola S, Malosh RE, et al. Diakses tanggal 15 Februari 2020. from the original on 2020-01-30. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the. Lancet dalam bahasa English. The New York Times dalam bahasa Inggris. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is 98. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2020. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy ASCIA dalam bahasa Inggris. Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. The structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 include membrane glycoprotein M , envelope protein E , nucleocapsid protein N , and the spike protein S. Species: , , , , , , , , , ,• The virus also affects gastrointestinal organs as ACE2 is abundantly expressed in the cells of , and as well as cells and of the. Infeksi menyebar dari satu orang ke orang lain melalui percikan droplet dari saluran pernapasan yang sering dihasilkan saat batuk atau bersin. Amerika Serikat• McIntosh K, Becker WB, Chanock RM December 1967. However, it is tempting to speculate about an alternative hypothesis, that the 1889-1890 pandemic may have been the result of interspecies transmission of bovine coronaviruses to humans, resulting in the subsequent emergence of HCoV-OC43. Coronavirus HKU15• Coronaviruses constitute the Orthocoronavirinae, in the family , order , and realm. CDC 11 Februari 2020. "Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province". Some strains of MHV cause a progressive in mice which has been used as a murine model for. Bamlanivimab is authorized for people with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing who are twelve years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms 88 lb , and who are at high risk for progressing to severe COVID-19 or hospitalization.。 。

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Coronavírus

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Coronavirus

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Coronavirus

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Penyakit koronavirus 2019

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COVID

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Coronavirus disease 2019

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